The adsorptive removal performance of strontium (Sr) through bio-mineralization metabolism under various parameters was evaluated in this study. The primary mechanism of bio-mineralization used in this study was the urea hydrolysis process through bacterial enzymatic catalysis. Bacillus sp, which was isolated from river sediment, was used as a ureolytic bacteria. Various environmental conditions were set as different initial concentrations of Sr (10, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/L), and various ratios of Mg/Ca (4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25). The concentrations of Sr2+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the solution of the batch experiment were measured to identify the bio-mineralization performance and the removal rate of Sr. In addition, the main Sr removal mechanism of ureolytic bacteria was identified. As a result, for Sr removal of bacteria, the bio-mineralization mechanism was more predominant than the adsorption of Sr. The rapid growth and high nucleation site production were observed when the initial concentration of Sr2+ increased and the Mg/Ca ratio was lowered, resulting in high biomineralization performance and Sr removal rate. The main phases of carbonate minerals formed in the presence of Sr, Ca, and Mg were SrCO3 and SrCa(CO3)2. Mg2+ could retard the bacterial growth and participate in the formation of carbonate minerals, when a large amount of Mg2+ was present. Furthermore, the desorption rate of Sr2+ from bacterial pastes containing the carbonate minerals increased as the concentration of HCl increased, although the carbonate minerals were in a stable state.