In this paper, we propose a novel neural network structure and training and prediction methods. We propose a novel deep neural network algorithm to detect road surface damage conditions for establishing a safe road environment. We secure 1300 training and 400 testing images to train the neural network; the images contain multiple types of road distress. The proposed algorithm is compared with nine deep learning models from various fields. Comparison results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms all others with a pixel accuracy of 97.61%, F1 score of 79.33%, mean intersection over union of 81.62%, and frequency-weighted intersection over union of 95.64%; in addition, it requires only 3.56 M parameters. In the future, the results of this study are expected to play an important role in ensuring safe driving by efficiently detecting poor road conditions.