Introduction: EGFRT790M mostly exists subclonally and is acquired as the most common mechanism of resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Nevertheless, because de novo EGFRT790M-mutant NSCLC is rare, little is known on acquired resistance mechanisms to third -generation EGFR TKIs. Methods: Acquired resistance mechanisms were analyzed using tumor and plasma samples before and after third-generation EGFR TKI treatment in four patients with de novo EGFRT790M-mutant NSCLC. Genetic alterations were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing, targeted sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and droplet digital PCR. MTORL1433S, confirmed for oncogenicity using the Ba/F3 system, was reproduced in H1975 cell lines using CRISPR/ Cas9-RNP. Results: Of seven patients with NSCLC with de novo EGFRT790M/L858R mutation, four (LC1-4) who received third-generation EGFR TKIs acquired resistance after achieving a partial response (median 1/4 27 mo, range: 17-48 mo). Novel MTORL1433S and EGFRC797S/L798I mu-tations in cis, MET amplification, and EGFRC797S mutation were identified as acquired resistance mechanisms to third-generation EGFR TKIs. The MTORL1433S mutation was oncogenic in Ba/F3 models and revealed resistance to osimertinib through AKT signaling activation in NCI-H19 75 cells harboring the MTORL1433S mutation edited by CRISPR/Cas9 (half-maximal inhibitory con-centration, 800 +/- 67 nM). Osimertinib in combination with mTOR inhibitors abrogated acquired resistance to osimertinib. Conclusions: Activation of bypass pathways and the EGFRC797S or EGFRC797S/L798I mutation were identified as acquired resistance mechanisms to third-generation EGFR TKIs in patients with NSCLC with de novo EGFRT790M mu-tation. In addition, MTORL1433S-and EGFRL858R/T790M-mutant NSCLC cells were sensitive to osimertinib plus mTOR inhibitors. (c) 2021 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.