Direct light field acquisition method using a lens array requires a complex system and has a low resolution. On the other hand, the light fields can be also acquired indirectly by back-projection of the focal stack images without lens array, providing a resolution as high as the sensor resolution. However, it also requires the bulky optical system design to fix field-of-view (FOV) between the focal stacks, and an additional device for sensor shifting. Also, the reconstructed light field is texture-dependent and low-quality because it uses either a high-pass filter or a guided filter for back-projection. This paper presents a simple light field acquisition method based on chromatic aberration of only one defocused image pair. An image with chromatic aberration has a different defocus distribution for each R, G, and B channel. Thus, the focal stack can be synthesized with structural similarity (SSIM) 0.96 from only one defocused image pair. Then this image pair is also used to estimate the depth map by depth-from-defocus (DFD) using chromatic aberration (chromatic DFD). The depth map obtained by chromatic DFD is used for high-quality light field reconstruction. Compared to existing light field indirect acquisition, the proposed method requires only one pair of defocused images and can clearly reconstruct light field images with Blind/Referenceless Image Spatial Quality Evaluator (BRISQUE) scores lowered by 17%–38% and with Perception-Based Image Quality Evaluator (PIQE) scores lowered by 19%–45%. A defocused image pair is acquired by our customized compact optical system consisting of only three lenses, including a varifocal lens. Image processing and image quality evaluation are all performed using MATLAB.