Multicomponent liquid fuels such as nanofluids and water-in-oil emulsion have been used to control combustion dynamics and pollutant emissions. Similarly, experimental studies on the micro-explosion phenomena of multicomponent liquid fuels have been conducted to enhance the performance of spray combustion. However, the differences in their breakup mechanisms have not been clarified. In this study, breakup characteristics were investigated by introducing irradiation from a pulse laser on a single liquid droplet of n-dodecane and its mixture with nanoparticles or dispersed water droplets. First, the properties of the nanoparticle fluid and the water-in-oil emulsion were compared. After that, various breakup and dynamic behaviors were categorized into three regimes based on the location of breakup due to energy absorption, which is determined by the additive concentration. That is, there was a self-focusing regime (F-regime), an absorption regime (A-regime), and a transient regime between them (T-regime). In addition, detailed breakup characteristics were classified into four-modes depending on the energy level: a no variation mode, an oscillation and puffing mode (OP), a swelling and breakup mode (SB), and an intensive breakup mode (IB). Transitions between the regimes or the modes are described in a map and their criteria were discussed. Two representative characteristics of the secondary droplets (e.g., number and size) were investigated. Different trends appeared according to the concentration and type of additives, and some empirical scale-relationships were suggested. Finally, differences in the breakup mechanisms of the nanofluid and the emulsion were explained.