The highly complex central nervous systems of mammals are often studied using three-dimensional (3D) in vitro primary neuronal cultures. A coupled confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence labeling are widely utilized for visualizing the 3D structures of neurons. However, this requires fixation of the neurons and is not suitable for monitoring an identical sample at multiple time points. Thus, we propose a label-free monitoring method for 3D neuronal growth based on refractive index tomograms obtained by optical diffraction tomography. The 3D morphology of the neurons was clearly visualized, and the developmental processes of neurite outgrowth in 3D spaces were analyzed for individual neurons.