Background. There is insufficient data on the longevity of immunity acquired after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Methods. We aimed to evaluate the duration of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity according to the clinical severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study population comprised asymptomatic (n = 14), symptomatic/ nonpneumonic (n = 42), and pneumonic (n = 41) patients. Results. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin class G and neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers lasted until 6 months after diagnosis, with positivity rates of 66.7% and 86.9%, respectively. Older age, prolonged viral shedding, and accompanying pneumonia were more frequently found in patients with sustained humoral immunity. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific T-cell response was strongly observed in pneumonic patients and prominent in individuals with sustained humoral immunity. Conclusions. In conclusion, most (>85%) patients carry NAb until 6 months after diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing insights for establishing vaccination strategies against COVID-19.