Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a major enzyme responsible for the formation of methylarginine in mammalian cells; however, its function in vivo is not well understood due to its early embryonic lethality in null mice exhibiting spontaneous DNA damage, cell cycle delays, and defects in check point activation. Here, we generated germ cell-specific Prmt1 knock-out (KO) mice to evaluate the function of PRMT1 in spermatogenesis. Our findings demonstrate that PRMT1 is vital for male fertility in mice. Spermatogenesis in Prmt1 KO mice was arrested at the zygotene-like stage of the first meiotic division due to an elevated number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). There was a loss of methylation in meiotic recombination 11 (MRE11), the key endonuclease in MRE11/RAD50/NBS 1 (MRN) complex, resulting in the accumulation of SPO11 protein in DSBs. The ATM-mediated negative feedback control over SPO11 was lost and, consequently, the repair pathway of DSBs was highly affected in PRMT1 deficient male germ cells. Our findings provide a novel insight into the role of PRMT1-mediated asymmetric demethylation in mouse spermatogenesis.