As a promising future treatment for stroke rehabilitation, researchers have developed direct brain stimulation to manipulate the neural excitability. However, there has been less interest in energy consumption and unexpected side effect caused by electrical stimulation to bring functional recovery for stroke rehabilitation. In this study, we propose an engineering approach with subthreshold electrical stimulation (STES) to bring functional recovery. Here, we show a low level of electrical stimulation boosted causal excitation in connected neurons and strengthened the synaptic weight in a simulation study. We found that STES with motor training enhanced functional recovery after stroke in vivo. STES was shown to induce neural reconstruction, indicated by higher neurite expression in the stimulated regions and correlated changes in behavioral performance and neural spike firing pattern during the rehabilitation process. This will reduce the energy consumption of implantable devices and the side effects caused by stimulating unwanted brain regions.