Oxide dispersion strengthened CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (ODS-HEAs) were prepared using two different powder preparation methods classified by yttrium addition strategy to investigate the effects of in-situ and ex-situ oxide dispersoid formation on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Systematic microstructural analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Cryo-milled powder analysis, grain structure evolution after spark plasma sintering, dispersoid characteristics, and matrix/dispersoid interface structure analysis of the in-situ and ex-situ dispersoids within the high-entropy alloy (HEA) matrix were performed. The in-situ dispersoid formation was dominantly observed in the Y-alloyed ODS-HEA through the construction of a coherent interface relationship with complex chemical composition, leading to an increase in the Zener pinning forces on the grain boundary movement. ODS-HEA with in-situ oxide dispersoids enhanced the formation of ultrafine-grained structures with an average diameter of 330 nm at a sintering temperature of 1173 K. This study shows that the Y pre-alloying method is efficient in achieving fine coherent dispersoids with an ultrafine-grained structure, resulting in an enhancement of the tensile strength of the CoCrFeMnNi HEA. (C) 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The editorial office of Journal of Materials Science & Technology.