In the climate change era, urban geometry serves to ensure sustainability for urban planners since it notably affects building energy consumption. However, previous studies have mainly conducted experimental investigations under hypothetical conditions. Without empirical evidence, it is difficult to implement these findings under real conditions. This paper examined empirical data to determine the urban geometry effect on building energy consumption in a large, complicated urban area. Urban geometric parameters, including the surface-to-volume ratio, obstruction angle, and building orientation, were measured across Seoul, and their correlations with building energy use were analyzed. The results show that the surface-to-volume ratio and obstruction angle are important, despite the empirical data complexity. Additional data analysis indicates that the heating energy type and building use consideration yields more reliable correlation coefficient trends. The potential impacts of natural ventilation and the urban heat island (UHI) effect on building energy consumption were examined. The UHI effect, rather than shadows on buildings, predominantly impacts the building electricity use in August and September. The correlation variation caused by the building permit date was investigated. The results in this paper could help urban planners and designers develop blueprints to control urban geometry and establish relevant design guidelines. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.