Indirect validation of fluid-to-fluid scaling criteria for modeling steam condensation based on empirical correlations and CFD simulations

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Several nuclear reactor designs have adopted passive safety systems with condensation inside horizontal tubes, such as the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) of the APR+, the new generation of the Korean-Standard Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). Performing steam condensation experiments under high-pressure conditions is needed for the design and the realistic prediction of the condensation phenomena in such systems. To avoid the costs and technical complexities associated with experimentation at high-pressure conditions, a fluid-to-fluid scaling method to model high-pressure steam condensation with a simulant fluid, refrigerant for instance, had been developed. It was determined that the liquid-to-vapor density ratio, the Froude number, and the vapor Reynolds number should be preserved in order to guarantee the flow regime and heat transfer similarity between prototypes and models. The scope of the current work is to validate the developed scaling criteria. Due to the limitation of test data of different fluids with comparable test parameters, indirect validation is proposed based on two approaches. The first approach is based on empirical correlations, in which test data from one fluid are transferred to the equivalent conditions of the other fluid, the transferred data are then compared with condensation correlations to check the validity of the scaling method. The second approach is based on CFD calculations. A CFD model, using the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+, for the simulation of condensation in hotizontal tubes is developed. The Fluid Film model is used for modeling the condensate film thickness and development. For modeling the phase change process, source and sink terms are introduced to the continuity, momentum, and energy equations at the interface between the vapor and the condensate film. The developed CFD model is then applied in the scaling criteria validation by using it to simulate the condensation phenomena of different models in one fluid and compare its results with the corresponding experimental data in other fluid. The validation results show good agreement between prototypes and their equivalent models, and show good feasibility and reasonable accuracy of the proposed scaling criteria.
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NE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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