Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an ongoing pandemic disease. In the current review, we describe SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses in acute and convalescent COVID-19 patients. We also discuss the relationships between COVID-19 severity and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses and summarize recent reports regarding SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals. These T cells may be cross-reactive cells primed by previous infection with human common-cold coronaviruses. Finally, we outline SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses in the context of vaccination. A better understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses is needed to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics.