Obesity has become a global public health and economic problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for a number of complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease, and cancer. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a biogenic monoamine that plays various roles in metabolic homeostasis. It is well known that central 5-HT regulates appetite and mood. Several 5-HT receptor agonists and selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown beneficial effects on appetite and mood control in clinics. Although several genetic polymorphisms related to 5-HT synthesis and its receptors are strongly associated with obesity, there is little evidence of the role of peripheral 5-HT in human metabolism. In this study, we performed a systemic analysis of transcriptome data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEX) database. We investigated the expression of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT biosynthesis, in the human brain and peripheral tissues. We also performed differential gene expression analysis and predicted changes in metabolites by comparing gene expressions of tissues with high TPH expression to the gene expressions of tissues with low TPH expression. Our analyses provide strong evidence that serotonin plays an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in humans.