Hopping and Flipping of RNA Polymerase on DNA during Recycling for Reinitiation after Intrinsic Termination in Bacterial Transcription

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Two different molecular mechanisms, sliding and hopping, are employed by DNA-binding proteins for their one-dimensional facilitated diffusion on nonspecific DNA regions until reaching their specific target sequences. While it has been controversial whether RNA polymerases (RNAPs) use one-dimensional diffusion in targeting their promoters for transcription initiation, two recent single-molecule studies discovered that post-terminational RNAPs use one-dimensional diffusion for their reinitiation on the same DNA molecules. Escherichia coli RNAP, after synthesizing and releasing product RNA at intrinsic termination, mostly remains bound on DNA and diffuses in both forward and backward directions for recycling, which facilitates reinitiation on nearby promoters. However, it has remained unsolved which mechanism of one-dimensional diffusion is employed by recycling RNAP between termination and reinitiation. Single-molecule fluorescence measurements in this study reveal that post-terminational RNAPs undergo hopping diffusion during recycling on DNA, as their one-dimensional diffusion coefficients increase with rising salt concentrations. We additionally find that reinitiation can occur on promoters positioned in sense and antisense orientations with comparable efficiencies, so reinitiation efficiency depends primarily on distance rather than direction of recycling diffusion. This additional finding confirms that orientation change or flipping of RNAP with respect to DNA efficiently occurs as expected from hopping diffusion.
Publisher
MDPI
Issue Date
2021-02
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Citation

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, v.22, no.5, pp.2398

ISSN
1661-6596
DOI
10.3390/ijms22052398
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/281768
Appears in Collection
CH-Journal Papers(저널논문)BS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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