Interdisciplinary research (IDR) has been a growing paradigm in science and technology for the past few decades because of the increase in the complexity of scientific and technological innovation. However, only a small amount of research has examined how IDR across different disciplines has developed over the past few decades and its relationship with R&D performance. This study examines the development of IDR in various scientific disciplines from the perspective of science and technology and its relationship to R&D performance. In doing so, we analyze the co-authorship of all the papers and patents produced by government research institutes in the largest innovation cluster in South Korea, that is, Daedeok Innopolis, during 1992 and 2012 using a network analysis. Those institutes each focus on a different specific discipline. We found that not only does the IDR network structure demonstrate that IDR increased over time regardless of the discipline but also that the scope of IDR has expanded across all the research institutes. In addition, the development of IDR in different disciplines varies significantly, depending on the scientific disciplines. Interestingly, we also found that higher interdisciplinarity in scientific publications and patents is significantly correlated with higher R&D performance.