This study presents a long-term degradation behavior of fly ash blended concrete in a vault type low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using PHREEQC combined with CEMDATA18 database. Since rainwater plays a predominant role as leachate for the concrete waste container in the repository, the effect of chemical properties of seasonal rainwater on the chemical degradation of concrete was analyzed. In addition, the impact of the blending with fly ash on the chemical degradation was evaluated through a gradual replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by fly ash. Regardless of the replacement level, autumn rainwater showed the greatest influence on the concrete degradation owing to the presence of inorganic carbon species, which induce the carbonation. The resistance of concrete to chemical degradation by rainwater was persistently reduced due to the decreasing formation of portlandite and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) with increasing replacement level.