Proper development of the nervous system is critical for its function, and deficits in neural development have been implicated in many brain disorders. A precise and predictable developmental schedule requires highly coordinated gene expression programs that orchestrate the dynamics of the developing brain. Especially, recent discoveries have been showing that various mRNA chemical modifications can affect RNA metabolism including decay, transport, splicing, and translation in cell typeand tissue-specific manner, leading to the emergence of the field of epitranscriptomics. Moreover, accumulating evidences showed that certain types of RNA modifications are predominantly found in the developing brain and their dysregulation disrupts not only the developmental processes, but also neuronal activities, suggesting that epitranscriptomic mechanisms play critical post-transcriptional regulatory roles in development of the brain and etiology of brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of molecular regulation on transcriptome plasticity by RNA modifications in neurodevelopment and how alterations in these RNA regulatory programs lead to human brain disorders.