The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients is critical in clinical research for further investigation of tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for the efficient capture and characterization of cancer cells using silver nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs-rGO) composites. A pulsed laser reduction of silver nanowire-graphene oxide (AgNW-GO) mixture films induces hot-spot formations among AgNPs and artificial biointerfaces consisting of rGOs. We also use in situ electric field-assisted fabrication methods to enhance the roughness of the SERS substrate. The AgNW-GO mixture films, well suited for the proposed process due to its inherent electrophoretic motion, is adjusted between indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes and the nano-undulated surface is generated by applying direct-current (DC) electric fields during the laser process. As a result, MCF7 breast cancer cells are efficiently captured on the AgNPs-rGO substrates, about four times higher than the AgNWs-GO films, and the captured living cells are successfully analyzed by SERS spectroscopy. Our newly designed bifunctional substrate can be applied as an effective system for the capture and characterization of CTCs.