MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression in many tissues. Although a number of brain-enriched miRNAs have been identified, only a few specific miRNAs have been revealed as critical regulators of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. miR-9-5p/3p are brain-enriched miRNAs known to regulate development and their changes have been implicated in several neurological disorders, yet their role in mature neurons in mice is largely unknown. Here, we report that inhibition of miR-9-3p, but not miR-9-5p, impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without affecting basal synaptic transmission. Moreover, inhibition of miR-9-3p in the hippocampus resulted in learning and memory deficits. Furthermore, miR-9-3p inhibition increased the expression of the LTP-related genes Dmd and SAP97, the expression levels of which are negatively correlated with LTP. These results suggest that miR-9-3p-mediated gene regulation plays important roles in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory.