Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) is a non-enzymatic component required for the multi-tRNA synthetase complex. While exon 2 skipping alternatively spliced variant of AIMP2 (AIMP2-DX2) compromises AIMP2 activity and is associated with carcinogenesis, its clinical potential awaits further validation. Here, we found that AIMP2-DX2/AIMP2 expression ratio is strongly correlated with major cancer signaling pathways and poor prognosis, particularly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Analysis of a clinical patient cohort revealed that AIMP2-DX2 positive AML patients show decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. We also developed targeted RNA-sequencing and single-molecule RNA-FISH tools to quantitatively analyze AIMP2-DX2/AIMP2 ratios at the single-cell level. By subclassifying hematologic cancer cells based on their AIMP2-DX2/AIMP2 ratios, we found that downregulating AIMP2-DX2 sensitizes cells to anticancer drugs only for a subgroup of cells while it has adverse effects on others. Collectively, our study establishes AIMP2-DX2 as a potential biomarker and a therapeutic target for hematologic cancer. Ku, Kim et al develop a method to analyse the ratio of the alternatively spliced variant of AIMP2 to full length AIMP via single-molecule RNA-FISH. They can subclassify hematologic cancer based on AIMP2-DX2/AIMP2 ratio and find that cells with high AIMP2-DX2 ratio can be sensitized to chemotherapy drugs by depleting AIMP2-DX2.