The defining features of a neuron are its functional and anatomical connections with thousands of other neurons in the brain. Together, these neurons form functional networks that direct animal behavior. Current approaches that allow the interrogation of specific populations of neurons and neural circuits rely heavily on targeting their gene expression profiles or connectivity. However, these approaches are often unable to delineate specific neuronal populations. Here, we developed a novel intersectional split intein-mediated split-Cre recombinase system that can selectively label specific types of neurons based on their gene expression profiles and structural connectivity. We developed this system by splitting Cre recombinase into two fragments with evolved split inteins and subsequently expressed one fragment under the influence of a cell type-specific promoter in a transgenic animal, and delivered the other fragment via retrograde viral gene transfer. This approach results in the reconstitution of Cre recombinase in only specific population of neurons projecting from a specific brain region or in those of a specific neuronal type. Taken together, our split intein-based split-Cre system will be useful for sophisticated characterization of mammalian brain circuits.