The outcomes of patients with SCLC have not yet been substantially impacted by the revolution in precision oncology, primarily owing to a paucity of genetic alterations in actionable driver oncogenes. Nevertheless, systemic therapies that include immunotherapy are beginning to show promise in the clinic. Although, these results are encouraging, many patients do not respond to, or rapidly recur after, current regimens, necessitating alternative or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss ongoing investigations into the pathobiology of this recalcitrant cancer and the therapeutic vulnerabilities that are exposed by the disease state. Included within this discussion, is a snapshot of the current biomarker and clinical trial landscapes for SCLC. Finally, we identify key knowledge gaps that should be addressed to advance the field in pursuit of reduced SCLC mortality. This review largely summarizes work presented at the Third Biennial International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer SCLC Meeting. (C) 2020 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.