The vaginal microbiota may be important for pregnancy prognosis because vaginal dysbiosis during pregnancy appears to be related to preterm birth (PTB) or pregnancy loss. Previous reports have indicated that a Lactobacillus- poor microbial flora in the vagina and intrauterine infection by diverse anaerobes ascending from the vagina are associated with undesirable delivery outcomes. However, no research has involved the use of pyrosequencing analysis to examine vaginal microbiota profiles or their potential associations with high-risk pregnancy in Korean women. Vaginal swabs were collected from 500 Korean women for the identification of community state types (CSTs). Of these, 137 samples were further analyzed using a Roche/454 GS Junior pyrosequencer. Three distinct CSTs were identified based on the dominant vaginal microbes: CST I (Lactobacillus crispatus dominated), CST III (Lactobacillus iners dominated), and CST IV (with diverse species of anaerobes). Twelve of the 67 pregnant women had undesirable pregnancy outcomes (four miscarriages and eight PTBs). The dominant microbe in the vaginal microbiota of women who gave birth at full-term was L. crispatus. In contrast, L. iners was the dominant vaginal microbe in women who miscarried. Most (n = 6/8) vaginal microbiota profiles of women who experienced PTB could be classified as CST IV, with diverse bacteria, including anaerobic vaginal species. The present study provides valuable information regarding the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota of Korean women related to high-risk pregnancy. Investigation of the vaginal microbiotic structure in pregnant Korean women is necessary to enable better prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes.