The mission tasks of polar exploration utilizing unmanned systems such as glacier monitoring, ecosystem research, and inland exploration have been expanded. To facilitate unmanned exploration mission tasks, precise and robust navigation systems are required. However, limitations on the utilization of satellite navigation system are present due to satellite orbital characteristics at the polar region located in a high latitude. The orbital inclination of global positioning system (GPS), which was developed to be utilized in mid-latitude sites, was designed at 55°. This means that as the user is located in higher latitudes, the satellite visibility and vertical precision become worse. In addition, the use of satellite-based wide-area augmentation system (SBAS) is also limited in higher latitude regions than the maximum latitude of signal reception by stationary satellites, which is 70°.
This study proposes a local-area augmentation system that additionally utilizes Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) considering satellite navigation system environment in Polar Regions. The orbital inclination of GLONASS is 64.8°, which is suitable in order to ensure satellite visibility in high-latitude regions. In contrast, GLONASS has different system operation elements such as configuration elements of navigation message and update cycle and has a statistically different signal error level around 4 m, which is larger than that of GPS. Thus, such system characteristics must be taken into consideration to ensure data integrity and monitor GLONASS signal fault. This study took GLONASS system characteristics and performance into consideration to improve previously developed fault detection algorithm in the local-area augmentation system based on GPS. In addition, real GNSS observation data were acquired from the receivers installed at the Antarctic King Sejong Station to analyze positioning accuracy and calculate test statistics of the fault monitors. Finally, this study analyzed the satellite visibility of GPS/GLONASS-based local-area augmentation system in Polar Regions and conducted performance evaluations through simulations.