Detection of small metabolites is essential for monitoring and optimizing biological gas conversion. Currently, such detection is typically done by liquid chromatography with offline sampling. However, this method often requires large equipment with multiple separation columns and is at risk of serious microbial contamination during sampling. Here we propose real-time optical detection of small metabolites using uniform plasmonic nanoparticles monolayers produced by capillary-assisted transfer. We reproducibly fabricate metal nanoparticles monolayers with a diameter of similar to 1 mm for the detection of acetate, butyrate, and glucose by a glass capillary tube. Metal nanoparticles monolayers are not only uniform in terms of average interparticle distance but also structurally stable under dynamic fluidic conditions. The monolayers resistant to fluid shear stress with surface-enhanced Raman scattering are able to reversibly monitor the concentration of acetate and sensitively detect acetate and glucose at levels as low as 10 mu M, which is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the concentration range of typical biological gas conversion. In addition, structurally similar metabolites such as acetate and butyrate, when mixed, become distinguishable by our method.