Achieving high emission efficiency in solid-state quantum dots (QDs) is an essential requirement for high-performance QD optoelectronics. However, most QD films suffer from insufficient excitation and light extraction efficiencies, along with nonradiative energy transfer between closely adjacent QDs. Herein, we suggest a highly effective strategy to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of QD composite films through an assembly of QDs and poly-(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine)) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer (BCP). A BCP matrix casted under controlled humidity provides multiscale phase-separation features based on (1) submicrometer-scale spinodal decomposition between polymer-rich and water-rich phases and (2) sub-10 nm-scale microphase separation between polymer blocks. The BCP-QD composite containing bicontinuous random pores achieves significant enhancement of both light absorption and extraction efficiencies via effective random light scattering. Moreover, the microphase-separated morphology substantially reduces the Forster resonance energy transfer efficiency from 53% (pure QD film) to 22% (BCP-QD composite), collectively achieving an unprecedented 21-fold enhanced PL over a broad spectral range.