Highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors are needed for use in a wide range of applications such as environmental toxic gas monitoring, disease diagnosis, and food quality control. Although some chemiresistive sensors have been commercialized, grand challenges still remain: ppb-level sensitivity, accurate cross-selectivity, and long-term stability. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with record-breaking surface areas and ultrahigh porosity are ideal sensing materials because chemical sensors rely highly on surface reactions. In addition, MOFs can be used as a membrane to utilize their unique gas adsorption and separation characteristics. Furthermore, the use of MOFs as precursors to enable facile production of various nanostructures is further combined with other functional materials. Based on these fascinating features of MOFs, there have been great efforts to elucidate reaction mechanisms and address limitations in MOF-based chemiresistors. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview and recent progress in chemiresistive sensors developed by using pure MOFs, MOF membranes, and MOF derivatives.