This paper proposes computation of contrast medium behavior and X-ray image rendering. The contrast medium behavior varies depending on the position of the contrast medium in the large vessel. The particle-based method is used in the large vessel. The contrast medium simply flows through the narrow vessel. The behavior is simulated with the uniform pipe flow consisting of linear spatial curves in the narrow vessel. The computational efficiency is verified by comparing the simulation using the proposed method with the simulation using the particle-based method. The average computation time of the proposed method is 4.07 ms which is less than 23.15 ms of the particle-based method. The simulation using the particle-based method is compared with the CFD simulation to determine the parameters which minimize the errors of the simulation. The optimal parameters are determined using the Genetic Algorithm. The error of velocity is 18.23 % and error of mass flow rate is 12.76 %.
The X-ray image is rendered discretizing the simulation model with the grids to approximate the continuous material. The uniform grids are generated in the simulation using the particle-based method. The grids are generated at each point of the linear spatial curve to reduce the number of grids in the simulation of the uniform pipe flow. The average computation time of rendering the X-ray image is 14.31 ms. The questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate realism and usefulness of the rendered X-ray images.