The demand for an intuitive virtual reality experience has led to the production of many virtual reality contents, but there is still a lack of physical experience and the burden of wearing equipment. To address this issue, shape-changing displays that physically implement information directly in 3D space have been studied. However, most of these are in the form of a table-top that is deformed on one side. This paper discusses the design and applications of shape-changing displays with deformed shapes and closed surfaces in all 3D directions. We propose a display that deforms the surface by arranging the actuator radially at a single point, and deals with the process of designing the system and producing the content. There are three main contributions of this paper. First, we propose a method to measure the efficiency according to the type and number of actuators in the system design process and to optimize the result. Based on this, we discuss the problems that arise while manufacturing the prototype named Programmable Sphere. Third, we discuss how to use 3D shape transformation displays and develop contents. The same process and problems are encountered in the production of a 3D actuator-based shape-changing display. We expect this study to form the basis for other 3D shape-changing.