Microbial reductive pathways of nitrogen (N) oxides are highly relevant to net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agroecosystems. Several biotic and abiotic N-oxide reductive pathways influence the N budget and net GHG production in soil. This review summarizes recent findings of N-oxide reduction pathways and their implications to GHG emissions in agroecosystems and proposes several mitigation strategies. Denitrification is the primary N-oxide reductive pathway that results in direct N2O emissions and fixed N losses, which add to the net carbon footprint. We highlight how dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), an alternative N-oxide reduction pathway, may be used to reduce N2O production and N losses via denitrification. Implications of nosZ abundance and diversity and expressed N2O reductase activity to soil N2O emissions are reviewed with focus on the role of the N2O-reducers as an important N2O sink. Non-prokaryotic N2O sources, e.g. fungal denitrification, codenitrification and chemodenitrification, are also summarized to emphasize their potential significance as modulators of soil N2O emissions. Through the extensive review of these recent scientific advancements, this study posits opportunities for GHG mitigation through manipulation of microbial N-oxide reductive pathways in soil.