This research proposes a data structure for context-aware risk management for architectural heritage using Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) and Virtual Reality (VR). In cultural heritage domain, risk management plays a key role in the preservation and intervention of the heritage. For effective risk management, it is important to share enriched data between people who monitor and diagnose heritages and people who recognize the context of information. The 5W1H (what, when, where, who, why, and how) model-based metadata structure for context-awareness and the framework for linking the HBIM with VR environment which enables sharing and retrieving of risk management information are proposed in this research. Two prototypes were created; an on-site VR application for the heritage managers and a remote VR application for the conservators. The effectiveness of the applications was verified through an experiment including a user survey to compare the paper-based and the VR-based methods regarding onsite VR application, and a focus-group interview regarding the remote VR application. This study enabled to integrate risk management information scattered across a variety of sources and formats, provide contextualized information. Thereby it shortens the time and effort spent to find and share information by heritage managers and conservators. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.