Recently, copper oxide (CuO)-based visible-light photodetectors have attracted great interest due to their narrow bandgap (1.2 eV), low cost, and ease of fabrication. However, there has been insufficient theoretical analysis and study of CuO-based photodetectors, resulting in inferior performance in terms of responsivity, detectivity, and response speed. This work develops a method to enhance the performance of CuO photodetectors by engineering a grain structure based on a newly-developed theoretical model. In the developed theoretical grain-structure model, the grain size and the connections between grains are considered because they can strongly affect the optoelectronic characteristics of CuO photodetectors. Based upon the proposed model, the engineered CuO device achieves enhanced optoelectronic performance. The engineered device shows high responsivity of 15.3 A/W and detectivity of 1.08 x 10(11) Jones, which are 18 and 50 times better than those of the unoptimized device, and also shows fast rising and decaying response speeds of 0.682 s and 1.77 s, respectively. In addition, the proposed method is suitable for the mass-production of performance-enhanced, reliable photodetectors. By using a conventional semiconductor fabrication process, a photodetector-array is demonstrated on a 4-inch wafer. The fabricated devices show uniform, high, and stable optoelectronic performance for a month.