Gross motion of the ankle joint complex (AJC) is a summation of the ankle and subtalar joints. Although AJC kinematics have been widely used to evaluate the function of the AJC, the coordinated movements of the ankle and subtalar joints are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify the individual kinematics of the ankle and subtalar joints in the intact foot during ground walking by using a bi-planar fluoroscopic system. Bi-planar fluoroscopic images of the foot and ankle during walking and standing were acquired from 10 healthy subjects. The three-dimensional movements of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus were calculated with a three-dimensional/two-dimensional registration method. The skeletal kinematics were quantified from 9% to 86% of the full stance phase because of the limited camera speed of the X-ray system. At the beginning of terminal stance, plantar-flexion of the AJC was initiated in the subtalar joint on average at 75% ranging from 62% to 76% of the stance phase, and plantar-flexion of the ankle joint did not start until 86% of the stance phase. The earlier change to plantar-flexion in the AJC than the ankle joint due to the early plantar-flexion in the subtalar joint was observed in 8 of the 10 subjects. This phenomenon could be explained by the absence of direct muscle insertion on the talus. Preceding subtalar plantar-flexion could contribute to efficient and stable ankle plantar-flexion by locking the midtarsal joint, but this explanation needs further investigation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.