Exosome complex is widely conserved, functionally versatile, and essential constituent of the machinery regulating gene expression in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. While the most fundamental enzymatic property of exosome is ribonucleolytic activity, its in vivo functions are varied, highly specific, and tightly regulated, and include RNA degradation, processing, and quality control. Recent reports reveal that nuclear exosome also has a prominent role in gene silencing as well as in regulating the expression of a wide variety of noncoding RNAs. In this talk, I will discuss the recent progress of our laboratory about nuclear exosome Rrp6. Our recent work identified a novel role of Rrp6 that controls cohesin dynamics through its catalytic activity, and provides new insights into how nuclear exosome can regulate chromatin integrity and life span from yeast to mammal.