Corynebacterium glutamicum has been mainly used for industrial production of amino acids, and in recent years, it has also been successfully engineered to broaden its range of substrate and product profiles. In particular, C. glutamicum has been engineered to use non-natural sugar substrates (mainly pentoses) derived from hemicellulosic feedstock, which is the second abundant component of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering of the host in this context can greatly contribute to the development of an economic and sustainable bioprocess. The present review focuses on the recent progress in engineering C. glutamicum towards efficient utilization of pentose sugars derived in hemicellulose and for direct utilization of hemicellulose. In addition, use of C. glutamicum as a biocatalyst for bioconversion of low-value sugars derived from hemicellulose to high-value product has been reviewed.