In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of an water-in-oil W/O emulsion droplet under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The base fuel used was n-decane, and total volume ratios of 10, 20, and 30% of distilled water were mixed for producing the emulsion fuel. Span 80 with a volume ratio of 2% was added as a surfactant, and the emulsion fuel was homogeneously mixed via ultrasonication. The combustion process of an emulsion droplet was divided into five stages: droplet heating, classical combustion, puffing, secondary classical combustion, and surfactant combustion. The ignition delay decreased with elevated ambient temperatures, whereas an increase in the ambient pressure and water volume ratio resulted in longer ignition delays. The droplets did not ignite in 500 degrees C or 600 degrees C conditions at 1 bar because of the significant Stefan flow of fuel vapor. After droplet ignition, the droplet combustion process, including classical combustion, puffing, and surfactant combustion, followed. The average burning rate increased with ambient pressure, but it was insensitive to ambient temperatures and water volume ratios. After flame extinction, a secondary flame reappeared because of the combustion of surfactant and residues. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.