PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to assess the retinal and choroidal vasculatures of an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) rat model using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) as well as to verify the performance of OCTA for visualizing in vivo vascular alterations, longitudinally and quantitatively. METHODS. To induce OIR, Sprague Dawley rat pups were incubated in an 80% oxygen chamber from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P11 and returned to room air. OCTA imaging was performed in six eyes at P15, P18, P21, and P24. All eyes were imaged with ex vivo retinal flat mount immunofluorescence microscopy for comparison with OCTA. The areas of the neovascular tufts, retinal vessel tortuosities and diameters, and vessel densities of different retinal and choroidal layers were quantified. RESULTS. The neovascular tufts were observed in two OIR eyes. The tuft areas decreased spontaneously from P18 to P24. The increase in arterial tortuosity and venous dilation were observed in the OIR eyes at P15 and P18. The retardation of vascular developments was observed in the deep vascular plexus and the choroidal layer in the OIR group while the superficial vascular plexus did not show developmental delay. CONCLUSIONS. This study demonstrates an application of OCTA for quantitative and longitudinal studies on in vivo vascular alterations, including neovascular tufts, increase in arterial tortuosity, venous dilation, and developmental delay in the OIR rat model.