Development of a rapid, point-of-care assay for diagnosing bacterial infections is crucial for subsequent treatment of the patient and preventing the overuse of antibiotics. Herein, we describe a rapid, one-step colorimetric assay based on the formation of nano-aggregates using nanobeads targeting Gram-positive bacteria. Vancomycin was immobilized onto blue-colored polymeric nanobeads to induce specific and multivalent binding with the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall and subsequent agglomeration. Without any pre-processing steps, the addition of various types of Gram-positive pathogens to the nanobeads resulted in the formation of blue precipitates, which could be observed with the naked eye in approximate to 30 min. We also utilized a porous filter system for the assay, which allowed discrimination of Gram-positive targets with higher selectivity, and demonstrated feasibility as a simple diagnostic assay with minimal technical components. We anticipate that the nanobead aggregation assay can be potentially applied as a rapid and simple sensing platform, which can be easily miniaturized and enable point-of-care diagnosis of Gram-positive infections.