The aim of this study was to investigate hidden hearing loss in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 A (CMT1A), a common inherited demyelinating neuropathy. By using pure-tone audiometry, 43 patients with CMT1A and 60 healthy controls with normal sound detection abilities were enrolled. Speech perception in quiet and noisy backgrounds, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD), and temporal modulation detection (TMD) were measured. Although CMT1A patients and healthy controls had similar pure-tone thresholds and speech perception scores in a quiet background, CMT1A patients had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased speech perception ability in a noisy background compared to controls. CMT1A patients showed significantly decreased temporal and spectral resolution (both p < 0.05). Also, auditory temporal processing of CMT1A patients was correlated with speech perception in a noisy background (r = 0.447, p < 0.01) and median motor conduction velocity (r = 0.335, p < 0.05). Therefore, we assumed that demyelination of auditory nerve in CMT1A causes defective cochlear neurotransmission, which reduces temporal resolution and speech perception in a noisy background. Because the temporal resolution test was well correlated with the degree of demyelination in auditory and peripheral motor nerves, temporal resolution testing could be performed as an additional marker for CMT1A.