Although microRNAs have emerged as key regulators in diverse cellular processes, the roles of microRNAs are poorly I understood in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during differentiation into specialized cell types. In this study, we used a microRNA array with 799 human microRNA probes to examine the expression profiles of microRNAs in hESCs during differentiation into endodermal and mesodermal lineages in vitro. Among the microRNAs analyzed, 7 and 20 microRNAs were enriched in the developmental process of hESCs into mesodermal and endodermal lineages, respectively. In particular, the expression levels of miR-200 family, which is known to regulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), gradually increased in hESCs during differentiation into hepatocytes while they gradually decreased during differentiation into vascular endothelial cells. Downregulation of ZEB1, a direct target of miR-200 family, and E-CADHERIN, a target protein of ZEB1, was observed in hESCs during differentiation into endodermal and mesodermal lineages, respectively. These results indicate that miR-200 family has an important role in determining the cell fate between endodermal and mesodermal lineages from the pluripotent state.