Unwanted radiological or nuclear exposure remains a public health risk for which effective therapeutic countermeasures are lacking. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in treating radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) incurred by lethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) when administered in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In vitro experiments indicated FGF2 treatment increased proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and upregulated AKT-GSK3 beta/beta-catenin signaling in irradiated IEC-6 cells. We next established and analyzed mice cohorts consisting of sham irradiation (Group Sh); 12 Gy WBI (Group A); WBI with BMT (Group B); WBI with FGF2 treatment (Group F); and WBI with BMT and FGF2 treatment (Group BF). At 2 weeks postirradiation, Group BF showed a dramatic increase in survival over all other groups. Intestinal epithelium of Group BF, but not Group B or F, showed augmented proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and preserved crypt numbers and morphology. Furthermore, Group BF maintained intestinal barrier function with minimal inflammatory disturbances in a manner comparable to Group Sh. In accordance, transcriptomic analyses showed significant upregulation of intestinal barrier and stem cell markers in Group BF relative to Groups A and B. Taken together, parenteral FGF2 synergizes with BMT to confer potent mitigation against RIGS.