A recent study of inertial microfluidics within nonrectangular cross-section channels showed that the inertial focusing positions changes with cross-sectional shapes; therefore, the cross-sectional shape can be a useful control parameter for microfluidic particle manipulations. Here, we conducted detail investigation on unique focusing position shift phenomena, which occurs strongly in channels with the cross-sectional shape of the isosceles right triangle. The top focusing positions shift along the channel walls to the direction away from the apex with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing particle size. A larger particle with its center further away from the side walls experiences shear gradient lift toward the apex, which leads to an opposite result with changes of Reynolds and particle size. The focusing position shift and the subsequent stabilization of corner focusing lead to changes in the number of focusing positions, which enables a novel method for microparticle separations with high efficiency (> 95%) and resolution (< 2 mu m). The separation method based on equilibrium focusing; therefore, the operation is simple and no complex separation optimization is needed. Moreover, the separation threshold can be easily modulated with flow rate adjustment. Rare cell separation from blood cell was successfully demonstrated with spiked MCF-7 cells in blood by achieving the yield of similar to 95% and the throughput of similar to 10(6) cells/min.