Genetically modified mice have been widely used in the field of beta-cell research. However, analysis of results gathered using genetically modified organisms should be interpreted carefully as the results may be confounded by several factors. Here, we showed the ectopic serotonin (5-HT) production in beta-cells of RIP-Cre(Mgn), MIP-GFP, and MIP-Cre/ERT mice. These mice contained a human growth hormone (hGH) cassette to enhance transgene expression and hGH expression and Stat5 phosphorylation were detected in pancreatic islets of these mice. The expression level of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) was upregulated in pancreatic islets of transgenic mice with an hGH cassette but not in transgenic mice without an hGH cassette. Ectopic 5-HT production was not observed in beta-cell-specific prolactin receptor (Prlr) knockout mice or Stat5 knockout mice crossed with RIP-Cre(Mgn). We further confirmed that 5-HT production in beta-cells of several transgenic mice was induced by hGH expression followed by the activation of the Prlr-Stat5-Tph1 pathway. These findings indicate that results obtained using transgenic mice containing the hGH cassette should be interpreted with care. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.