Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, largely because of difficulties in early diagnosis. Despite accumulating evidence indicating that aberrant glycosylation is associated with GC, site-specific localization of the glycosylation to increase specificity and sensitivity for clinical use is still an analytical challenge. Here, we created an analytical platform with a targeted glycoproteomic approach for GC biomarker discovery. Unlike the conventional glycomic approach with untargeted mass spectrometric profiling of released glycan, our platform is characterized by three key features: it is a target-protein-specific, glycosylation-site-specific, and structure-specific platform with a one-shot enzyme reaction. Serum haptoglobin enriched by immunoaffinity chromatography was subjected to multispecific proteolysis to generate site-specific glycopeptides and to investigate the macroheterogeneity and microheterogeneity. Glycopeptides were identified and quantified by nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ninety-six glycopeptides, each corresponding to a unique glycan/glycosite pairing, were tracked across all cancer and control samples. Differences in abundance between the two groups were marked by particularly high magnitudes. Three glycopeptides exhibited exceptionally high control-to-cancer fold changes along with receiver operating characteristic curve areas of 1.0, indicating perfect discrimination between the two groups. From the results taken together, our platform, which provides biological information as well as high sensitivity and reproducibility, may be useful for GC biomarker discovery.