Surface applicator of a miniature X-ray tube for superficial electronic brachytherapy of skin cancer

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Purpose: We designed and fabricated a surface applicator of a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based miniature X-ray tube for the use in superficial electronic brachytherapy of skin cancer. To investigate the effectiveness of the surface applicator, the performance of the applicator was numerically and experimentally analyzed. Methods: The surface applicator consists of a graphite flattening filter and an X-ray shield. A Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP6, was used to optimize the geometries of both the flattening filter and the shield so that X-rays are generated uniformly over the desired region. The performance of the graphite filter was compared with that of conventional aluminum (Al) filters of different geometries using the numerical simulations. After fabricating a surface applicator, the X-ray spatial distribution was measured to evaluate the performance of the applicator. Results: The graphite filter shows better spatial dose uniformity and less dose distortion than Al filters. Moreover, graphite allows easy fabrication of the flattening filter due to its low X-ray attenuation property, which is particularly important for low-energy electronic brachytherapy. The applicator also shows that no further X-ray shielding is required for the application because unwanted X-rays are completely protected. As a result, highly uniform X-ray dose distribution was achieved from the miniature X-ray tube mounted with the surface applicators. The measured values of both flatness and symmetry were less than 5% and the measured penumbra values were less than 1 mm. All these values satisfy the currently accepted tolerance criteria for radiation therapy. Conclusions: The surface applicator exhibits sufficient performance capability for their application in electronic brachytherapy of skin cancers. (c) 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Publisher
WILEY
Issue Date
2018-01
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMAS; NANOTUBE FIELD EMITTERS; DOSE-RATE BRACHYTHERAPY; FLATTENING FILTER; BASAL-CELL; IRRADIATION; RADIOTHERAPY; PARAMETERS; DOSIMETRY

Citation

MEDICAL PHYSICS, v.45, no.1, pp.29 - 36

ISSN
0094-2405
DOI
10.1002/mp.12656
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/240160
Appears in Collection
NE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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