Self-diffusion in a two-dimensional simple fluid is investigated by both analytical and numerical means. We investigate the anomalous aspects of self-diffusion in two-dimensional fluids with regards to the mean square displacement, the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, and the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) using a consistency equation relating these quantities. We numerically confirm the consistency equation by extensive molecular dynamics simulations for finite systems, corroborate earlier results indicating that the kinematic viscosity approaches a finite, non-vanishing value in the thermodynamic limit, and establish the finite size behavior of the diffusion coefficient. We obtain the exact solution of the consistency equation in the thermodynamic limit and use this solution to determine the large time asymptotics of the mean square displacement, the diffusion coefficient, and the VACF. An asymptotic decay law of the VACF resembles the previously known self-consistent form, 1/(t root ln t), however with a rescaled time.