This article presents a kinematic-based method for locomotion mode recognition, for use in the control of an exoskeleton for power augmentation, to implement natural and smooth locomotion transition. The difference in vertical foot position between a foot already in contact with ground and a foot newly in contact with the ground was calculated via kinematics for the entire exoskeleton and used to identify the locomotion mode with other sensor data including data on the knee joint angle and inclination of the thigh, shank, and foot. Locomotion on five different types of terrain-level-ground walking, stair ascent, stair descent, ramp ascent, and ramp descent-were identified using two-layer decision tree classes. An updating process is proposed to improve identification of the transition and accuracy using the foot inclination at the mid-stance. An average identification accuracy of more than 99% was achieved in experiments with eight subjects for single terrains ( no terrain transitions) and hybrid terrains. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve high accuracy without significant misrecognition and minimize the delay in locomotion mode recognition of the exoskeleton.