Graphene has attracted great attention owing to its superb properties as an anode of organic or polymer light-emitting diodes (OLEDs or PLEDs). However, there are still barriers for graphene to replace existing indium tin oxide (ITO) due to relatively high sheet resistance and work function mismatch. In this study, PLEDs using molybdenum oxide (MoOx) nanoparticle-doped graphene are demonstrated on a plastic substrate to have a low sheet resistance and high work function. Also, this work shows how the doping amount influences the electronic properties of the graphene anode and the PLED performance. A facile and scalable spin coating process was used for doping graphene with MoOx. After doping, the sheet resistance and the optical transmittance of five-layer graphene were similar to 180 Omega sq(-1) and similar to 88%, respectively. Moreover, the surface roughness of MoOx-doped graphene becomes smoother than that of pristine graphene. Furthermore, a nonlinear relationship was observed between the MoOx doping level and device performance. Therefore, a modified stacking structure of graphene electrode is presented to further enhance device performance. The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) and power efficiency of the PLED using the MoOx-doped graphene anode were 4.7% and 13.3 lm W-1, respectively. The MoOx-doped graphene anode showed enhanced device performance (261% for maximum EQE, 255% for maximum power efficiency) compared with the pristine graphene.