In this study, an alga-based simultaneous process of treating swine wastewater (SWW) and producing biodiesel was explored. Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX-265) was employed as a model species, and a SWW-based medium was prepared by dilution with tap water. Chlorella vulgaris grew well in the SWW-based medium, and at optimum dilution ratios, it exceeded the conventional culture medium in terms of biomass concentration and productivity. In eightfold diluted SWW, which supported the maximum growth, biomass productivity was 0.247 g L-1 day(-1), while the productivity was merely 0.165 g L-1 day(-1) in standard tris-acetate-phosphorous (TAP) algal medium. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) productivity was greater in the SWW-based medium (0.067 versus 0.058 g L-1 day(-1)). This enhanced productivity resulted in more than 95 % removal of both nitrogen and phosphorous. All these show that C. vulgaris cultivation is indeed possible in a nutrient-rich wastewater with appropriate dilution, and in so doing, the wastewater can effectively be treated.